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This is PGS garden school. Here we will write a bit on how to grow different kinds of plants, for example Chili, Tomatoes and Tobacco.

This is how you take clones from almost any foliage plant

Take a scalpel or scissors and cut just above a branch/node in 45° angle. The clones should have between two-four pair of leafs and they should be between six-twelwe cm in hight. Dip one cm of the "root" in Clonex. Then carefully put it into a peat briquet or a Rockwool cube.

Trim of the leafs from the lower part of the clone(maybe a leaf pair or the tops of the lower leafs) to get about 3-4 cm stem. Put the clones in a propagator or a small tent with high humidity. Do not use a light that is too strong. Do not use a light that is stronger than 250w MH. 

Bonsai

Is an ancient asian gardenening art were you creare natural miniatures of trees. It is an excellent hobby that you can do both indoor and outdoor.

You can create a bonsai with any plant that has a woody stem. A bonsai should always be admired from a certain direction.

You form the bonsai by tying and wrapping the branches with cotton and metal wire.
Med hjälp av trådar i metall och bommul så lindas och formas grenarna.

It is possible to grow a bonsai from seed but it will take some years. Taking a clone from a tree or similar could be an option. You can't have nordic trees that are used to cold winters inside.

These small trees thrive in soil that is airy and mixed with sand. Tools that are normally used for tending bonsais is:
Azalea Scissors, concave and globe pliers. Cutter and Jin pliers. Combined spatula and pliers.

Orchids

Exist in countless varieties. Very beutiful flowers that makes you think about a tropical or subtropical lush forest. In Sweden there are 50-60 varieties of orchids(all of which are protected).
This flower and its odd needs can at first be a little discouraging but the fact is that an orchid that is thriving needs less tending and watering than many other plants.

Many of those who grow orchids can't get enough of it. Often the collection grows into  containing varieties from the entire world. Orchids are watered by dipping the root system and inner pot into water one or two times a week.

We will soon be selling orchid seeds here at Professional Grow. Keep an eye at the site for more info!

 

Tobacco plants

Tobacco cultivation is a agricultural tradition with historic roots, even in Sweden. We have been growing tobacco for hundreds of years.

The tobacco plant is different varieties that is grouped up into the nicotiana plant family, named after the french diplomat Jean Nicot that worked in Portugal under 1500.

You can grow this plant in Sweden but it is important with nutrient and nitrogen rich soil. To get leaves that you can use you'll need a hot micro climate with a lot of sun.
A green house or a protected garden area is important.

Kitchen Garden

Why not grow your own spices and herbs? It is easy to grow for example chili and tomatoes. You don't need a lot of space, a windowsill is enough or a flower box on the balcony. If you want a rich harvest all year around you will have to use artificial light.

You can use a tent for any kind of plant and it makes it possible to optimize the climate for the plants you grow. Light isolation make you able to use strong lights any time of the day/night without you getting disturbed by it.

Herbs are not only good for cooking, fact is that the modern medicine has its roots in ethnobotanics.
For example, hops, lemon balm and lavender is soothing/calming.

Mint is good for the stomach and garlic works great against colds. 

 

Good facts about foliar spraying! 

* Let the water be for at least 24 hours, as always. This is so the chloride and other chemicals can evaporate from the water so you avoid phototoxic damage. If you let the water be for 24 hours you will also get a more correct reading of the EC and pH, since it had time to stabilize

* Get a reading of the pH already when you pour the water.
The pH should be regulated to what you give the plants normally or what it specifically says on the bottle/package.

* Try to get as small water drops as you can, mist if possible and make sure that there are no bigger drops on the leaves.

* Do not spray when it is too hot or dry in the air.

* Raise the lights or spray a couple of hours after the lights have been turned off or a while before they turn on. It can be good to spray with regular pH-adjusted water a couple of minutes before you spray the nutrient foliar spray to lower the temperature a bit, and also about ten minutes after to make the nutrient stay better(can not stress the importance of a good Spread & Sticker enough)

* An extra foliar spray with added potassium in the beginning of the bloom phase can boost it, especially if the day temperature is under 25°C.

* Boron, calcium and iron is absorbed slowly during the bloom phase, a foliar spray will fix the problem in a snap!

* Foliar spraying to remedy calcium, boron, or potassium deficiency is not a good idea.
Here I choose to put up conflicting information, both from reputable senders. I think I will get email regarding what is true pretty soon and then I promise to revise it. Until then - try it for yourself.

* Use a surfactant, like dish-soap when foliar spraying if you don't use any wetting agent like Spread & Sticker. For more information about Spread & Sticker visit their site. A wetting agent is highly recommended when foliar spraying by a lot of the industry leaders. Primarily for a better spread and secondly for the absorption

* Keep an eye on what nutrients that have a high NPK value and which that are adapted for foliar spraying.

* If you are uncertain if two nutrients/ additives can be mixed, ask someone rather than letting your ignorance effect your dear plants in a negative way. We can answer any question you might have.

* Just like when feeding the plants through the roots, different plants has different nutritional needs.
 
Primarily I want to point out that we do not take any responsibility for if you burn your plants, overfeed them or create any other unwanted effects.
I have tried to put together a simple guide about foliar spraying. I have used information from different sources that gives a serious impression, like internet pages and nonfiction books.
The research about foliar spray is still under development and therefore sometimes there are no straight answers. This is especially true when talking about how often you should spray.

There are some additives that according to their instructions should be used one to six times per day in the beginning of the veg. phase. Others say that it is not good to spray more often than once a week in the beginning.
I think it depends on what you spray with. If you are using a additive that is made for foliar spray that does not have a high NPK-value I think you could spray daily or follow the instructions. If you are using a stronger nutrient you have to be more careful and take preventive measures like raising the lights, only spray before lights go on or after they go off and not spray too often.

To get some understanding of how foliar spray is working and what is really happening I think it would be good to give you some information on the small plant pores, stomata. The stomata is plant pores whose primary function is to take up gases and when it opens bind carbon dioxide and give away water. The stomata is concentrated to the underside of the leaves but can be found on the entire plant. This is why it is important to spray underneath the leaves when you are foliar spraying.

Hold the plant a bit up so you can reach from underneath or use a clean hand to be able to spray the underside of the leaves.
When the stomata is open they give off water vapors and oxygen at the same time as they take up carbon dioxide and different kinds of nutrients.

 
Stomata
It is the stomata but also the roots primarily that take up vitamines, microbes, hormones, nutrients and etc. The biggest advantage with foliar spraying compared to regular watering is that it is very fast. It is said that it takes about an hour from the time the little droplets hit the leaves until the nutrient is inside the plant, and another 23 hours until the nutrient has spread systemically.
Low carbon dioxide concentration in the air gets the stomata to open and high concentration gets the stomata to close. If the plant is stressed because of water deficiency the stomata will stay closed througout the day, wich is really bad. Not only for the foliar spray but also because if the stomata is closed, the photosynthesis stops. If the plant has a lot of water on the other hand the stomata will stay open as much as possible. Lots of light open the stomata as well!
Please note! If you foliar spray too often the plants can get confused and the roots stop being as active as they can be since the plant "learns" that nutrients come from another source. 

The stomata is controlled by the circumstances in your medium but also by the environment around your plants. As a guideline you can say that the stomata is open during day-time and closed during the night, even if you have a constant 24 hours veg. light. 
To be able to take full advantage of the stomata being open you should foliar spray your plants early in the morning when the temperature is about 26°C, but if you have an good supply of carbon dioxide, you can benefit from having it a few degrees warmer.

So, if you have decided to try foliar spraying out, how do you do it?
Firstly- how much do you want to invest into this project and in what phase are your plants? Are you going to make your own foliar spray nutrient mixes with what you got or are you going to buy an additive or similar for foliar spraying? How often are you going to spray your plants?

I highly recommend that you get a Spread & Sticker if you are going to do this in a somewhat serious manner. Advanced Nutrients, the producers of Wet Betty(similar product as Humboldts Sticky) says that the plants uptake goes up by 300% when you foliar spray with Wet Betty. So it is not only an investment for your plants healt but also for your wallet! On top of that you don't have to deal with dry "soil pockets" in the soil...

For the early stages of foliar spraying you can for example use an extract from seaweed, like Deuce Deuce or Canna Rhizotonic. You can also make a homemade mix, why not a mix that contains the fungi Trichoderma that has a documented effect with higher root vitality if given every other week or every third week for small plants. When the plants get bigger you gradually raise the amount of nutrients they are given.

After about 4 weeks you usually can start using the full artillery like BioBizz Fish-mix or BioBizz Alga-A-Mic. You can mix these two and it will become a effective foliar spray that you can use once a week. Don't forget to pH-adjust the mix and don't just mix without reading the rates and carefully think it through. Sometimes you can spray the plants with water only to get rid of salts and minerals from the leaves, not only to improve the uptake from the foliar spraying but also to avoid phototoxic effects.

Please send positive and negative reflections about this guide to info@professionalgrow.com.